2019年12月四级考试第一套答案及解析参考(兰州新

2019年12月四级考试第一套答案及解析参考(兰州新

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  Finally, some good news about airplane travel. If you are on a plane with a sick passenger, you are unlikely to get sick. That is the 26 of a new study that looked at how respiratory(呼吸道)viruses 27 on airplanes. Researchers found that only people who were seated in individual – had a high risk of catching the illness. All other passengers had only a very 28 chance of getting sick ,according to the findings. Media reports have not necessarily presented 29 information about the risk of getting infected on an airplane in the past. Therefore , these new findings should help airplane passengers to feel less 30 to catching respiratory infections while traveling by air.

  Prior to the new study, litter was known about the risks of getting 31 infected by common respiratory viruses, such as the flu or common cold, on an airplane, the researchers said. So, to 32 the risks of infection, the study team flew on 10 different 33 in the U.S. 34 side of a person infected with flu, as well as those sitting one roe in front of or behind this individual, had about an 80 person chance of getting sick. But other passengers were 35 safe from infection. They had a less than 3 percent chance of catching the flu.

  A) accurate B) conclusion

  C) directly D) either

  E) evaluate F) explorations

  G) flights H) largely

  I) nearby J) respond

  K) slim L) spread

  M) summit N) vividly

  O) vulnerable

  【答案】

  BLKAO CEGDH

  【解析】

  26. 根据the+n.+of+n.的定语后置结构,此空填名词。选项中名词仅有四个,根据上下文语义,这是一项关于飞机上呼吸道病毒的新实验,而前两句提到一个关于飞机的好消息,如果与生病的乘客搭乘同一班机,是不太可能被传染患病的,这应是实验结论。可知conclusion结论比explorations探索更符合文意。所以答案为B项,conclusion。

  27. 此句中定语从句部分缺少谓语,可知应填动词。选项中动词仅有3个,且皆为动词原型。根据文意,实验试图探究呼吸道病毒如何在飞机上____,可知spread传播比evaluate评估和respond回应更合适。所以答案是L,spread。

  28. 空格前有冠词a, 后有名词chance, 可知此空填形容词。选项中形容词共5个,根据文意,研究发现一部分处于特定情况的人群有很高的患病风险,与其对比,其余人群一定是患病几率较低。选项中能表达此意的仅有slim, 常见意苗条的,也可指微小的。因此答案是K, slim。

  29. 设空句结构完整,可知空格处应填修饰成分,又因空后有名词,因此填形容词做定语。选项中除去已选的K项,仅剩4个形容词。能修饰information信息的仅有A项,accurate,准确的。所以答案为A项,accurate。

  30. 有less可知此空填形容词构成形容词的比较级。根据文意,新的研究可以使飞机乘客呼吸道感染的可能性降低,剩余的三个形容词中,只有vulnerable脆弱的、易受伤的符合。因此答案为O项,vulnerable。

  31. 此句中空格处不影响句意及语法结构完整,空格后又没有名词,因此填副词修饰动词。选项中涉及的三个副词根据句意可以直接排除vividly,栩栩如生地。原文讲到,垃圾有使人感染呼吸道病毒的风险,根据上下文此空应该填入directly,直接感染,而非largely很大程度上。因此答案为C,directly。

  32. 此空为动词不定式做目的状语,因此填动词原型。根据句意,为了_____感染的风险,此空填evaluate评估,比respond回应更符合文意。因此答案为E项,evaluate。

  33. 此空处前有形容词different, 可知此空填名词。剩余的三个名词中,仅有flights, 航班符合文意。因此答案为G项,flight。

  34. 此空后有名词side, 需填形容词。根据文意为患感冒的病人两侧的乘客,应填either。因此答案为D项,either。

  35. 此句中空格处不影响句意及语法结构完整,应填入副词。剩余的两个副词中largely比vividly更符合文意。因此答案为H项,largely。

  一、长篇阅读部分

  2019年12月四级第一套长篇阅读解析

  新东方兰州学校 薛蕴芳 高海铭

  【题目】

  A South Korean city designed for the future takes on a life of its own

  A) Getting around a city is one thing — and then there's the matter of getting from one city to another. One vision of the perfect city of the future: a place that offers easy access to air travel.

  In 2011, a University of North Carolina business professor named John Kasarda published a book called Aerotropolis: The Way We'll Live Next. Kasarda says future cities should be built intentionally around or near airports. The idea, as he has put it, is to offer businesses "rapid, long-distance connectivity on a massive scale."

  B) "The 18th century really was a waterborne(水运的)century, the 19th century a rail century, the 20th century a highway, car, truck century — and the 21st century will increasingly be an aviation century, as the globe becomes increasingly connected by air," Kasarda says. Songdo, a city built from scratch in South Korea, is one of Kasarda's prime examples. It has existed for just a few years." From the get-go, it was designed on the basis of connectivity and competitiveness," says Kasada. "The government built the bridge directly from the airport to the Songdo International Business District. And the surface infrastructure was built in tandem with the new airport."

  C) Songdo is a stone's throw from South Korea's Incheon Airport, its main international hub(枢纽). But it takes a lot more than a nearby airport to be a city of the future. Just building a place as an "international business district" doesn't mean it will become one. Park Yeon Soo conceived(构想)this city of the future back in 1986. He considers Songdo his baby. "I am a visionary," he says. Thirty years after he imagined the city, Park's baby is close to 70 percent built, with 36,000 people living in the business district and 90,000 residents in greater Songdo. It's about an hour outside Seoul, built on reclaimed tidal flats along the Yellow Sea. There's a Coast Guard building and a tall trade tower, as well as a park, golf course and university.

  D) Chances are you've actually seen this place. Songdo appears in the most famous music video ever to come out of South Korea." Gangnam Style" refers to the fashionable Gangnam district in Seoul. But some of the video was filmed in Songdo."I don't know if you remember, there was a scene in a subway station. That was not Gangnam. That was actually Songdo," says Jung Won Son, a professor of urban development at London's Bartlett School of Planning. "Part of the reason to shoot there is that it's new and nice."

  E) The city was supposed to be a hub for global companies, with employees from all over the world. But that's not how it has turned out. Songdo's reputation is as a futuristic ghost town. But the reality is more complicated. A bridge with big, light-blue loops leads into the business district. In the center of the main road, there's a long line of flags of the world. On the corner, there's a Starbucks and a 7-Eleven — all of the international brands that you see all over the world nowadays.

  F) The city is not empty. There are mothers pushing strollers, old women with walkers — even in the middle of the day, when it's 90 degrees out. Byun Young-Jin chairs the Songdo real estate association and started selling property here when the first phase of the city opened in 2005. He says demand has boomed in the past couple of years. Most of his clients are Korean. In fact, the developer says, 99 percent of the homes here are sold to Koreans. Young families move here because the schools are great. And that's the problem: Songdo has become a popular Korean city — more popular as a residential area than a business one. It's not yet the futuristic international business hub that planners imagined." It's a great place to live. And it's becoming a great place to work," says Scott Summers, the vice president of Gale International, the developer of the city. The floor-to-ceiling windows of his company's offices overlook Songdo Central Park, with a canal full of kayaks and paddle boats. Shimmering(闪烁的)glass towers line the canal’s edge.

  G) "What's happened is, because we focused on creating that quality of life first, which enabled the residents to live here, what has probably missed the mark is for companies to locate here," he says. "There needs to be strong economic incentives." The city is still unfinished, and it feels a bit like a theme park. It doesn't feel all that futuristic. There's a high-tech underground trash disposal system. Buildings are environmentally friendly. Everybody's television set is connected to a system that streams personalized language or exercise classes.

  H) But Star Trek this is not. And to some of the residents, Songdo feels hollow." I'm, like, in prison for weekdays. That's what we call it in the workplace," says a woman in her 20s. She doesn't want to use her name for fear of being fired from her job. She goes back to Seoul every weekend. "I say I'm prison-breaking on Friday nights." But she has to make the prison break in her own car. There's no high-speed train connecting Songdo to Seoul, just over 20 miles away.

  I) The man who first imagined Songdo feels frustrated, too. Park says he built South Korea a luxury vehicle, "like Mercedes or BMW. It's a good car now. But we're waiting for a good driver to accelerate." But there are lots of other good cars out there, too. The world is dotted with futuristic, high-tech cities trying to attract the biggest international companies

  J) Songdo's backers contend that it's still early, and business space is filling up — about 70 percent of finished offices are now occupied. Brent Ryan, who teaches urban design at MIT, says Songdo proves a universal principle. "There have been a lot of utopian(乌托邦的)cities in history. And the reason we don't know about a lot of them is that a lot of them have vanished entirely." In other words, when it comes to cities — or anything else — it is hard to predict the future.

  36. Songdo’s popularity lies more in its quality of life than its business attraction.

  37. The man who conceives Songdo feels disappointed because it has fallen short of his expectations.

  38. A scene in a popular South Korean music video was shot in Songdo.

  39. Songdo still lacks the financial stimulus for businesses to set up shop there.

  40. Airplanes will increasingly become the chief means of transportation, according to a professor.

  41. Songdo has ended up different from the city it was supposed to be.

  42. Some of the people who work in Songdo complain about boredom in the workplace.

  43. A business professor says that a future city should have easy access to international transportation.

  44. According to an urban design professor, it is difficult for city designers to foresee what happen in the future.

  45. Park Yeon So. Who envisioned Songdo, feels a parental connection with the city.

  【参考答案】

  FIDGB EHAJC

  【解析】

  36. 根据题干中的popularity, quality of life, business attraction可定位至F段中间 Songdo has become a popular Korean city — more popular as a residential area than a business one. 题干中quality of life对应residential area,business为原词重现。因此答案为F。

  37. 根据题干中The man who conceives Songdo feels disappointed 可定位至I段第一句,The man who first imagined Songdo feels frustrated。题干用feels disappointed替换了原文中的feels frustrated。因此答案为I。

  38. 根据题干中South Korean music video可定位至D段第二句,Songdo appears in the most famous music video ever to come out of South Korea。Music video为原词重现。因此答案为D。

  39. 根据题干中lacks the financial stimulus for businesses 可定位至G段中间,There needs to be strong economic incentives. 题干词financial stimulus为原文词economic incentives的同义替换。因此答案为G。

  40. 根据题干中Airplanes … become the chief means of transportation可定位至B段首句 the 21st century will increasingly be an aviation century, as the globe becomes increasingly connected by air。题干词Airplanes为原文词aviation的同义替换。因此答案为B。

  41. 根据题干中ended up different from the city it was supposed to be可定位至E段前两句,The city was supposed to be a hub for global companies, with employees from all over the world. But that's not how it has turned out.。题干词was supposed to be为原词重现;ended up different同义替换了原文表述that's not how it has turned out。因此答案为E。

  42. 根据题干中people who work in Songdo complain about boredom可定位至H段首句 And to some of the residents, Songdo feels hollow。题干词 boredom为原文词 feels hollow的同义替换。因此答案为H。

  43. 根据题干中 a future city … easy access to international transportation可定位至A段第二句 One vision of the perfect city of the future: a place that offers easy access to air travel.题干词 future city对应原文词the perfect city of the future;easy access to international transportation对应原文表述easy access to air travel。因此答案为A。

  44. 根据题干中difficult for city designers to foresee what happen in the future可定位至J段最后一句when it comes to cities …it is hard to predict the future. 题干词 foresee 为原文词 predict the future的同义替换。因此答案为J。

  45. 根据题干中Park Yeon So… a parental connection with the city可定位至C段中间 He considers Songdo his baby.题干词parental connection为原文表述considers Songdo his baby的同义替换。因此答案为C。

  二、仔细阅读部分

  【真题】

  A. The fifth largest city in the US passed a significant soda tax proposal that will levy(征税) 1.5 cents per liquid ounce on distributors.

  Philadelphia's new measure was approved by a 13 to 4 city council vote. It sets a new bar for similar initiatives across the country. It is proof that taxes on sugary drinks can win substantial support outside super-liberal areas. Until now, the only city to successfully pass and implement a

  soda tax was Berkeley, California, in 2014.

  The tax will apply to regular and diet sodas, as well as other drinks with added sugar, such as Gatorade and iced teas. It's expected to raise $410 million over the next five years, most of which will go toward funding a universal pre-kindergarten program for the city.

  While the city council vote was met with applause inside the council room, opponents to the measure, including soda lobbyists, made sharp criticisms and a promise to challenge the tax in court.

  "The tax passed today unfairly singles out beverages -including low-and no-calorie choices." said Lauren Kane, spokeswoman for the American Beverage Association." But most importantly, it is against the law. So we will side with the majority of the people of Philadelphia who oppose this tax and take legal action to stop it."

  An industry-backed anti-tax campaign has spent at least S4 million on advertisements. The ads criticized the measure, characterizing it as a "grocery tax."

  Public health groups applauded the approved tax as a step toward fixing certain lasting health issues that plague Americans. "The move to recapture a small part of the profits from an industry that pushes a product that contributes to diabetes, obesity and heart disease in poorer communities in order to reinvest in those communities will sure be inspirational to many other places," said Jim Krieger, executive director of Healthy Food America." Indeed, we are already hearing from some of them. It's not 'just Berkeley' anymore."

  Similar measures in California's Albany, Oakland, San Francisco and Colorado's Boulder are becoming hot-button issues. Health advocacy groups have hinted that even more might be coming.

  46. What does the passage say about the new by-approved soda tax in Philadelphia?

  A) It will change the lifestyle of many consumers.

  B) It may encourage other US cities to follow suit.

  C) It will cut soda consumption among low-income communities.

  D) It may influence the marketing strategies of the soda business.

  【答案】B

  【关键词】 the newly-approved soda tax in Philadephia

  【定位】第二段. Philadelphila’s new measure was approved by a 1.3 to 4 city council vote. It sets a new bar for similar initiatives across country. It is proof that taxes on sugary drinks can win substantial support outside super-liberal areas.

  【同义替换】“它为全国范围内的类似行动设立新的标准。这证明,对含糖饮料征税可以在超级自由主义地区之外赢得大量支持。”和项B(这可能会鼓励美国其他城市效仿)可以匹配。

  47. What will the opponents probably do to respond to the soda tax proposal?

  A) Bargain with the city council.

  B) Refuse to pay additional tax.

  C) Take legal action against it.

  D) Try to win public support

  【答案】C

  【关键词】 What will the opponents probably do

  【定位】第四段出现了 opponents,他们提出了尖锐的批评,并承诺将在法庭上对该税提出质疑。他们会做什么事?定位到第五段 So we will side with the majority of the people of Philadelphia who oppose this tax and take legal action to stop 1.”(他们反对这项税收,并米取法律行动来阻止它。)

  【同义替换】选项C的 Take legal action against it可以和 take legal action to stop it匹配

  48. What did the industry-backed anti-tax campaign do about the soda tax proposal?

  A) It tried to arouse hostile feelings among consumers.

  B) It tried to sending letters of protest to the media.

  C) It kept sending letters of protest to the media.

  D) It criticized the measure through advertising.

  【答案】D

  【关键词】 What did the industry- backed anti- tax campaign do

  【定位】第六段。An industry- backed anti-tax campaign has spent at least S4 milion on advertisements. The ads criticized the measure, characterizing it as a"grocery tax".

  49. What did public health groups think the soda tax would do?

  A) Alert people to the risk of sugar-induced diseases.

  B) Help people to fix certain long-time health issues.

  C) Add to the fund for their research on diseases.

  D) Benefit low-income people across the country.

  【答案】B

  【关键词】 public health groups

  【定位】第七段 Public health groups applauded the approved tax as step toward fixing certain lasting health issues that plague Americans

  【同义替换】 applaud说明是正面的感情色彩,和B选项的help匹配。 fix certain lasting health issue= fix certain long-time health issues

  50. What do we learn about similar measures concerning the soda tax in some other cities?

  A) They are becoming rather sensitive issues.

  B) They are spreading panic in the soda industry.

  C) They are reducing the incidence of sugar-induced diseases.

  D) They are taking away a lot of profit from the soda industry.

  【答案】A

  【关键词】similar measures. the soda tax in some other cities

  【定位】最后一段 Similar measures in California' s Albany, Oakland, San Francisco and Colorados Boulder are becoming hot-button issues

  【同义替换】hot-button issues- sensitive issues

  B.

  Popping food into the microwave for a couple of minutes may seem utterly harmless, but Europe’s stock of these quick-cooking ovens emit as much carbon as nearly 7 million cars, a new study has found. And the problem is growing. With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming “status” items, owners are throwing away microwaves after an average of eight years. This is pushing sales of new microwaves which are expected to reach 135 million annually in the EU by the end of the decade.

  A study by the University of Manchester calculated the emissions of CO₂ - the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change – at every stage of microwaves, from manufacture to waste disposal. “It is electricity consumption by microwaves that has the biggest impact on the environment.” say the authors. The authors also calculate that the emissions from using 19 microwaves over a year are the same as those from using a car. According to the same study, efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behavior. For example, consumers could use appliances in a more efficient way by adjusting the time of cooking to the type of food.

  However, David Reay, professor of carbon management, argues that, although microwaves use a great deal of energy, their emissions are minor compared to those from cars. In the UK alone, there are around 30 million cars. These cars emit more than all the microwaves in the EU. Backing this up, recent data show that passenger cars in the UK emitted 69 million tons of CO₂ in 2015. This is 10 times the amount this new microwave oven study estimates for annual emissions for all the microwave ovens in the EU. Further, the energy used by microwaves is lower than any other form of cooking. Among common kitchen appliances used for cooking, microwaves are the most energy efficient, followed by a stove and finally a standard oven. Thus, rising microwave sales could be seen as a positive thing.

  51. What is the finding of the new study?

  A) Quick-cooking microwave ovens have become more popular.

  B) The frequent use of microwaves may do harm to our health.

  C) CO₂ emissions constitute a major threat to the environment.

  D) The use of microwaves emits more CO₂ than people think.

  【答案】D

  【关键词】 finding,the new study

  【定位】第一段 Popping food into the microwave for a couple of minutes may seem utterly harmless, and Europe’s stock of these quick-cooking ovens emit as much carbon as nearly 7 million cars, a new study has found

  【同义替换】将食物放入微波炉几分钟似乎完全无害,而欧洲现有的这种快速烹饪烤箱所排放的碳相当于近700万辆汽车的碳量。从 harmless排除了B选项。A和C在文中没有提到。

  D选项的排放二氧化碳和原文可以匹配。

  52. Why are the sales of microwaves expected to rise?

  A) They are becoming more affordable.

  B) They have a shorter life cycle than other appliances.

  C) They are getting much easier to operate.

  D) They take less time to cook than other appliances.

  【答案】A

  【关键词】 Why,sales of microwaves

  【定位】第一段 With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming"status"users,owners are throwing many microwave after an average of eight years. This is pushing sales of new microwave which are expected to reach 135 million annually in the EU by the end of the decade. 从 this is pushing sales of new microwave。推断出答案是this代词,也就是上文指代的内容。题目问的是why找with随着…。

  【同义替换】 costs falling,成本下降,是 affordable(价格低廉的)的同义替换

  53. What recommendation does the study by the University of Manchester make?

  A) Cooking food of different varieties.

  B) Improving microwave users’ habits.

  C) Eating less to cut energy consumption.

  D) Using microwave ovens less frequently.

  【答案】B

  【关键词】recommendation,study,University of Manchester

  【定位】第二段 A study by the University of Manchester出现了 University of Manchester,后面找建议。 According to the same study, efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behavior to use appliances more efficiently.

  【同义替换】improving consumer awareness and behavior.和文章的 improving microwave users’ habits,可以匹配

  54. What does Professor David Reay try to argue?

  A) There are far more emissions from cars than from microwaves.

  B) People should be persuaded into using passenger cars less often.

  C) The UK produces less CO₂ than many other countries in the EU.

  D) More data are needed to show whether microwaves are harmful.

  【答案】A

  【关健词】 David Reay, argue

  【定位】第三段 However,David Reay,professor of carbon management argues that, although microwaves use a great deal of energy,their emissions are minor compared to those from cars.尽管微波能消耗大量的能量,但与汽车所产生的能量相比,它的排放是微不足道的。

  【同义替换】选项A汽车排放量比微波炉大,和文章的微波炉挂放微不足道可以匹配。

  55. What does Professor David Reay think of the use of microwaves?

  A) It will become less popular in the coming decades.

  B) It makes everyday cooking much more convenient.

  C) It plays a positive role in environmental protection.

  D) It consumes more power than conventional cooking.

  【答案】C

  【关键词】 David Reay,the use of microwaves

  【定位】最后一段是 David的观点 Among common kitchen appliances used for cooking, microwaves are the most energy efficient, followed by a stove and finally a standard oven. Thus, rising microwave sales could be seen as a positive thing.

  【同义替换】微波炉是最节能的;销量的上升是一件好事。和选项C的 positive role in

  environment protection可以匹配。

    【 考后关注