2019年12月四级第二套阅读解析(长春新东方)

2019年12月四级第二套阅读解析(长春新东方)

时间:2020-03-21 18:15 作者:admin 点击:
阅读模式

  12月四六级考试直播入口 →_→ 猛戳

  Section C

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.

  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

  The fifth largest city in the US passed a significant soda tax proposal that will levy (征税) 1.5 cents per liquid ounce on distributors.

  Philadelphia's new measure was approved by a 13 to 4 city council vote. It sets a new bar for similar initiatives across the country. It is proof that taxes on sugary drinks can win substantial support outside super-liberal areas. Until now, the only city to successfully pass and implement a soda tax was Berkeley, California, in 2014.

  The tax will apply to regular and diet sodas, as well as other drinks with added sugar, such as Gatorade and iced teas. It's expected to raise $410 million over the next five years, most of which will go toward funding a universal pre-kindergarten program for the city.

  While the city council vote was met with applause inside the council room, opponents to the measure, including soda lobbyists, made sharp criticisms and a promise to challenge the tax in court.

  "The tax passed today unfairly singles out beverages -including low-and no-calorie choices." said Lauren Kane, spokeswoman for the American Beverage Association." But most importantly, it is against the law. So we will side with the majority of the people of Philadelphia who oppose this tax and take legal action to stop it."

  An industry-backed anti-tax campaign has spent at least S4 million on advertisements. The ads criticized the measure, characterizing it as a "grocery tax."

  Public health groups applauded the approved tax as a step toward fixing certain lasting health issues that plague Americans. " The move to recapture a small part of the profits from an industry that pushes a product that contributes to diabetes, obesity and heart disease in poorer communities in order to reinvest in those communities will sure be inspirational to many other places," said Jim Krieger, executive director of Healthy Food America." Indeed, we are already hearing from some of them. It's not 'just Berkeley' anymore."

  Similar measures in California's Albany, Oakland, San Francisco and Colorado's Boulder are becoming hot-button issues. Health advocacy groups have hinted that even more might be coming.

  46. What does the passage say about the new by-approved soda tax in Philadelphia?

  A) It will change the lifestyle of many consumers.

  B) It may encourage other US cities to follow suit.

  C) It will cut soda consumption among low-income communities.

  D) It may influence the marketing strategies of the soda business.

  47. What will the opponents probably do to respond to the soda tax proposal?

  A) Bargain with the city council.

  B) Refuse to pay additional tax.

  C) Take legal action against it.

  D) Try to win public support.

  48. What did the industry-backed anti-tax campaign do about the soda tax proposal?

  A) It tried to arouse hostile feelings among consumers.

  B) It tried to sending letters of protest to the media.

  C) It kept sending letters of protest to the media.

  D) It criticized the measure through advertising.

  49. What did public health groups think the soda tax would do?

  A) Alert people to the risk of sugar-induced diseases.

  B) Help people to fix certain long-time health issues.

  C) Add to the fund for their research on diseases.

  D) Benefit low-income people across the country.

  50. What do we learn about similar measures concerning the soda tax in some other cities?

  A) They are becoming rather sensitive issues.

  B) They are spreading panic in the soda industry.

  C) They are reducing the incidence of sugar-induced diseases.

  D) They are taking away a lot of profit from the soda industry.

  【解析】

  46. 根据题干关键词new by-approved soda tax in Philadelphia可以将题干定位至文章前三段。三个定位点主要内容为1. 新税法即将对经销商征税 2. 在全国范围内设立类似的新标准 并赢得自由地区以外的支持 3. 税法针对普通汽水以及无糖汽水,包括加糖饮料。只有选项B It may encourage other US cities to follow suit. “鼓励其他城市效仿其行为”能够跟第二段定位范围构成同义转化,二者都表示对新税法的支持赞同。选项A 意为改变消费者的生活方式,定位范围既没有出现原词也没有相同的含义,干扰性极低。选项C出现了原词soda,是定位范围频繁出现的关键词,但是仔细分析内容,强调得失减少对汽水的消费,与征税无关. 选项D 意为影响汽水的市场策略,为无中生有选项。

  47. 根据题干关键词 “opponent 反对者”以及 “respond” “回应”可以将47题定位至文章第四段和第五段,第四段出现关键词opponent,第五段出现关键词的动词形式oppose,出现了关键词词性变化。根据定位句的内容可以判断,反对者反应如下:made sharp criticisms (批判)and a promise to challenge the tax in court(承诺对税收提出异议)take legal action to stop it. (采取法律行动阻止)。只有选项C Take legal action against it.能够与原文构成同义转化against 跟stop 表达含义一致,意为反对。正确选项含有原词,干扰选项属于无中生有,容易判断,难度较低。

  48. 根据题干关键词industry-backed anti-tax campaign do 可以定位至文章第六段spent at least S4 million on advertisements. The ads criticized the measure, characterizing it as a "grocery tax." 表示在广告上花费4百万,通过广告批判措施,即D选项 It criticized the measure through advertising.的内容,几乎跟定位句一模一样,难度较低。

  49. 根据题干关键词public health groups以及think 可以将题干定位至文章第七段第一句话Public health groups applauded the approved tax as a step toward fixing certain lasting health issues that plague Americans。“ think”出现明确询问观点态度,而定位句中applaud ... as 以为 称赞……为……,同样表达观点态度,而as之后“a step toward fixing certain lasting health issues that plague Americans”,即为答案,只有选项B可以构成同义转化,fix 以及health issues 为原词,lasting 对应原文的long-time表示持久的 长期的。

  50. 根据题干关键词 similar measures 以及 some other cities 可以定位至文章最后一段第一句话 Similar measures in California's Albany, Oakland, San Francisco and Colorado's Boulder are becoming hot-button issues 定位句表示similar measures 相似的措施已经变成了hot-button issues 热点问题,和A选项sensitive issues构成同义转化。

  Passage Two

  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

  Popping food into the microwave for a couple of minutes may seem utterly harmless, but Europe’s stock of these quick-cooking ovens emit as much carbon as nearly 7 million cars, a new study has found. And the problem is growing. With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming “status” items, owners are throwing away microwaves after an average of eight years. This is pushing sales of new microwaves which are expected to reach 135 million annually in the EU by the end of the decade.

  A study by the University of Manchester calculated the emissions of CO₂ - the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change – at every stage of microwaves, from manufacture to waste disposal. “It is electricity consumption by microwaves that has the biggest impact on the environment.” say the authors. The authors also calculate that the emissions from using 19 microwaves over a year are the same as those from using a car. According to the same study, efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behavior. For example, consumers could use appliances in a more efficient way by adjusting the time of cooking to the type of food.

  However, David Reay, professor of carbon management, argues that, although microwaves use a great deal of energy, their emissions are minor compared to those from cars. In the UK alone, there are around 30 million cars. These cars emit more than all the microwaves in the EU. Backing this up, recent data show that passenger cars in the UK emitted 69 million tons of CO₂ in 2015. This is 10 times the amount this new microwave oven study estimates for annual emissions for all the microwave ovens in the EU. Further, the energy used by microwaves is lower than any other form of cooking. Among common kitchen appliances used for cooking, microwaves are the most energy efficient, followed by a stove and finally a standard oven. Thus, rising microwave sales could be seen as a positive thing.

  51. What is the finding of the new study?

  A) Quick-cooking microwave ovens have become more popular.

  B) The frequent use of microwaves may do harm to our health.

  C) CO₂ emissions constitute a major threat to the environment.

  D) The use of microwaves emits more CO₂ than people think.

  52. Why are the sales of microwaves expected to rise?

  A) They are becoming more affordable.

  B) They have a shorter life cycle than other appliances.

  C) They are getting much easier to operate.

  D) They take less time to cook than other appliances.

  53. What recommendation does the study by the University of Manchester make?

  A) Cooking food of different varieties.

  B) Improving microwave users’ habits.

  C) Eating less to cut energy consumption.

  D) Using microwave ovens less frequently.

  54. What does Professor David Reay try to argue?

  A) There are far more emissions from cars than from microwaves.

  B) People should be persuaded into using passenger cars less often.

  C) The UK produces less CO₂ than many other countries in the EU.

  D) More data are needed to show whether microwaves are harmful.

  55. What does Professor David Reay think of the use of microwaves?

  A) It will become less popular in the coming decades.

  B) It makes everyday cooking much more convenient.

  C) It plays a positive role in environmental protection.

  D) It consumes more power than conventional cooking.

  【解析】

  51. 根据题干关键词finding 以及 new study 可以定位至文章第一段第二行,finding和new study 放在一起表明题干询问研究结果结论,定位句表示使用微波炉排放的二氧化碳比汽车多得多,所以只有D) The use of microwaves emits more CO₂ than people think.“使用微波炉排放大量二氧化碳”可以做同义转化。干扰选项A提到了原词 microwave,但是描述的是微波炉受欢迎。干扰选项B 同样提到了原词microwave,但是描述伤害身体,与二氧化碳排放无关。干扰选项C出现原词“CO₂ emissions”,但是描述二氧化碳对于环境的危害

  52. 根据题干关键词 “why sales rise” 可以定位至第一段第七行, 根据“this is pushing the sales”这推动了微波炉的销量,可以判断this 指代的内容即为销量上升原因,所以需要推上文“With costs falling and kitchen appliances becoming “status” items, owners are throwing away microwaves after an average of eight years”.“成本下降并且厨具成为家庭必备产品” 只有A选项 more affordable 更便宜能够与cost falling 成本下降构成同义转化。

  53. 根据题干关键词可以定位至原文第二段第六行 第七行“efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behavior.”定位句表示,想减少消费,就要着重改变消费者行为和提升消费者的意识,只有B 选项B) Improving microwave users’ habits.“改变微波炉用户的行为习惯”可以跟定位句构成同义转化.

  54. 根据题干关键词可以定位至文章第三段,题干询问教授DR的观点,定位句表示although microwaves use a great deal of energy, their emissions are minor compared to those from cars“虽然微波炉使用了大量的能源,但是跟车比起来,排放量比较少”。只有A选项 能够与定位句构成同义转化。

  55. 根据题干关键词“DR的观点以及 use of microwaves微波炉的使用”可以将题干定位至最后一段第七行further 开始到最后一句,定位范围几个关键词“the energy used by microwaves is lower微波炉的能耗低”,以及“could be seen as a positive thing可以将其看作积极的事情”可以判断出DR 认为微波炉的使用是件好事,而只有C 选项出现了积极正面的词 a positive role 积极的角色。

    【 考后关注